Modern-day Anatolia, Turkey, was the centre of the Hattian civilization from 26th to 18th century BC. Considered among the most ancient civilization of urban settlers, it can be traced to the Akkadian cuneiform tablets of 24th century. The Hittite civilization is believed to have preceded the Hattian, and the two cultures merged around 23rd century BC. The Hittite adopted a variant of the Hatti religious beliefs. While the Hattians had their own language, there’s no evidence of any written form.
Referred to as the “Cloud People”, the Zapotecs, inhabited the southern highlands in central Mesoamerica, particularly the Valley of Oaxaca which they colonized by 900AD. They were among the first to use writing systems in the region. More importantly, they built one of the earliest recognizable North Amercian cities, Monte Alban. Founded in 5th century BC, the city housed nearly 25,000 citizens and lasted for more than 1200 years. The city was run by a privileged class of warriors, priests, and artists over a lower class of people.
The Hurrians are among the earliest ancient civilizations which influenced the Hittites. They prospered across the Middle East around 2nd century BC, probably even earlier. Names of persons and places, inscribed in Hurrian language, can be traced back to 3rd century BC Mesopotamian records. Not much of the civilization’s artefacts exist today. Most of the information about the Hurrian civilization comes from writings of other cultures like the Sumerians, Hittites, and Egyptians.
It’s widely believed that the Aztecs once inhabited present-day Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Nevada. They started to prosper from 12th century AD and began moving towards central Mexico. The Aztecs are one of the most prominent ancient civilizations. The 21st century Mexicans are actually of mixed Spanish and native blood. Their forerunners belonged to Mesoamerica and Aztecs. The civilization was culturally rich. People were fond of music, art and crafts, and sciences. Music, in fact, had a major role in Aztec culture regarding the worship of several gods and goddesses.
The period after the end of Mycenaean civilization from 1200BC, until the demise of Alexander in 323BC, is known as the Greek civilization. Marked by an ear of political, philosophical, artistic and scientific accomplishments, it was one of the most distinguished ancient civilizations which shaped history and had an unprecedented impact on entire Europe. Villages began to blossom in the Greek civilization, and civic administration got a better shape. The military was strengthened and regimented to acquire new lands. Much of modern mathematics and science is based on what the Greeks advanced.
It started from a small city in 8th century BC and turned into an empire which included continental Europe, almost the entire Britain, majority of western Asia, northern Africa, and even the Mediterranean islands. No wonder it’s called the grandest of all ancient civilizations. Owing to the conquests, French, Spanish, and Portuguese were freely used in the Roman Empire. A historic period of wealth and public security started after Emperor Augustus assumed the throne. Even the empire’s fall around 5th century AD was among the most significant implosions any of the early civilizations ever witnessed.
Foodie, lazy, bookworm, and internet junkie. All in that order. Loves to floor the accelerator. Mad about the Himalayas and its trekking trails. Former life forester. Also an occasional writer and editor