11. The southern secession
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A convention of southern delegates at South Carolina in 1860, voted to dissolve the state’s contract with the US. South Carolina had earlier threatened likewise in the 1830s, over a tariff which benefited the northern manufacturers but increased cost of goods in South. The Congress authorized the then President Andrew Jackson to dispatch an army to South Carolina. A late compromise managed to prevent a clash. Learning from the experience of going alone, South Carolina sent envoys to other states to garner support for a separate Southern Confederacy. While Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Texas, Alabama and Louisiana supported the move, others turned it down, albeit temporarily.
12. Bleeding Kansas
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The first fighting on the issue of slavery took place in Kansas in 1854. The federal government approved the Kansas-Nebraska Act that allowed residents of the former to vote on whether they wanted to be a free state or a slave state. The region saw influx of supporters from both North and South. They fought on the issue for several years. Skirmishes became commonplace and many people were killed. The name “Bleeding Kansas” was thus coined. Kansas finally joined the Union as a free state in 1861.
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13. Attack on Fort Sumter
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10 April, 1861. Provisional Confederate forces in Charleston, South Carolina, demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter held by the North. Major Robert Anderson, commander of the Fort, refused. Two days later the Confederates attacked the fort with cannons. Anderson surrendered on 13 April. The War formally started. Lincoln called volunteers to cull South’s rebellion. Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia refused. Other southern states felt Lincoln had overstepped his authority. They voted in favor of secession. The Fort Sumter attack is unanimously concluded by historians as among the main Civil War causes.